DETEKSI SOYBEAN MOSAIC VIRUS PADA TANAMAN KEDELAI DENGAN TEKNIK ELISA DI SULAWESI TENGGARA

R. Dewi Ratna Wulan, S.P., M.P. || Wednesday, 27 May 2020

R. DEWI RATNA WULAN (G2A1 15 027) Detection of Soybean mosaic virus on Soybean with ELISA Technique in Southeast Sulawesi. Under supervision of Prof. Dr. Ir. Muhammad Taufik, M.Si. as Main Supervisor and Dr. La Ode Santiaji Bande, S.P., M.P. as Co-supervisor.

 

This research was aimed to detect the prevalence of SMV based on morphological symptoms on plant and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test to figure out the incidence of SMV disease and to find out the prevalence of insect vector of SMV in soybean growing areas in Southeast Sulawesi. Survey method was conducted in three regencies in Southeast Sulawesi, which were considered as soybean growing areas i.e. Regencies of Konawe,  South Konawe, and Kolaka, then followed by serological assay using ELISA technique at Laboratory of Serology for Plant Quarantine, Agricultural Quarantine Service of Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi from January until May 2017. Observed variables were the incidence of SMV disease in the field based on morphological symptoms, type of insects that act as vector of SMV disease, and incidence of SMV disease based on result of ELISA. The results of ELISA test showed that soybean growing areas in three regencies of Southeast Sulawesi, i.e. Konawe, South Konawe, and Kolaka were positively infected by SMV with distinct symptoms such as uneven leaf surface, shrinked leaves with mosaic pattern, blistered leaves with dark green color and rolled in and out, and chlorosis of leaf margin. It was also found that neighbouring cowpea was positively infected by SMV; while the cucumbers, vegetable gourd, and chili pepper were negatively affected by this virus. Disease incidence of SMV on soybean growing areas in Southeast Sulawesi based on morphological symptoms in the field was 39,77‒64,00% while disease incidence of SMV based on laboratory test using ELISA were 2,92‒8,00%. In addition, a type of insects that act as vector of SMV, namely Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) was found in soybean growing areas. Empoasca paraterminalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Bemisia argentifolii (synonim of B. tabaci biotype B) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) insects were also found on soybeans infected by SMV, which provided a new information that those two insects were suspected to transmit SMV, particularly in Southeast Sulawesi, but further experiment is still needed to prove that those insects acts as SMV vectors.

Keywords: Soybean, Soybean mosaic virus, ELISA, insect vector.